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The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 4: 1940-1979

The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 4: 1940-1979
The second wave of circumcision promotion was begun in the 1940s with shoddy gynecological research promoting male genital cutting for supposed benefits to female health. Like all the studies promoting male cutting before them, these studies were eventually disproved, but they had the intended effect on promoting genital cutting.
At this time, childbirth, which had traditionally been done in the home, began to move into hospitals. While there are benefits to this, one issue this led to was newborns being easy prey for circumcising doctors. Parental consent was not needed yet, and circumcision was nearly automatic for boys born in hospitals. This is also when the shift begins to happen between the U.S. and the other circumcising countries (mostly English speaking). After WWII, most countries adopted a public healthcare system and did not cover circumcision. The U.S., however, continued with privatized healthcare, adding a financial incentive to continue the procedure.

1940: ~65% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 42% of adult men

1940 Charles Lane, a physician in Poughkeepsie, New York, believed the clitoris “a very important organ to the health and happiness of the female,” and performed circumcisions on women unable to reach orgasm. In a 1940 article concerning his use of circumcision on a patient—Mrs. W., a 22-year-old woman who had recently married but had yet to experience an orgasm—Lane noted “that little trick did it all right.” [quoted in S.B. Rodriguez]
1940 Aaron Goldstein invents the Gomco Clamp, manufactured by the Goldstein Medocal Company. It was widely marketed and quickly became the most popular tool for circumcision on the U.S. and Canada.
The Gomco method requires the foreskin be torn from the glans and a dorsal slit cut on the tissue. A bell is placed over the glans and the foreskin is pulled over it. The base of the clano is placed over the bell. By applying the nut, the device is tightened cutting off blood to the foreskin. After sitting for 5 minutes, the surgeon will amputate the foreskin with a scalpel.
[U.S. Patent 119180, issued February 27, 1940]
1941 Allan F. Guttmacher promoted mass circumcision as a means of "blunting male sexual sensitivity." He also implied incorrectly that an infant's intact foreskin needs to be forcibly retracted to be scrubbed daily. This was an imperative to damage children's genitals from a medical authority, the doctor-editor of a parenting magazine and the founder of Planned Parenthood. He claimed that failing to treat a child by damaging his foreskin would inevitably lead to foreskin deformity (phimosis). Supporting the anti-masturbation rationale for the surgery, he wrote:
"[Circumcision] does not necessitate handling of the penis by the child himself and therefore does not focus the male's attention on his own genitals. Masturbation is considered less likely."
He minimized the importance of consent (to the point of non-existence) by mentioning that some doctors performed the surgery without even thinking of obtaining a parent's permission:
"Some doctors make a practice of routine circumcision unless specific objection is raised by the parents, while others first consult the parents in order to discover their wishes."
When consent was not even a consideration, there must not have been much concern about concealing doctors' financial motivation to perform the surgery:
"When the obstetrician performs the operation he ordinarily adds 10 to 15 percent to his bill, although some include it in their original fee."
[Should the baby be circumcised? Parents Magazine.]
1942 Abraham Ravich claimed that circumcision prevented prostate cancer. [The relationship of circumcision to cancer of the prostate. JU.]
1946 Benjamin Spock recommended circumcision in his popular parenting book, a best selling parenting book for three decades: [Baby and Child Care, NY:Dutten. 1946-76]
1947 Navy doctor Eugene A. Hand successfully advanced the idea within the military that black men were dangerous carriers of disease, and that the low rate of circumcision among them was the main reason for this.
"Circumcision is not common among Negroes.... Many Negroes are promiscuous. In Negroes there is little circumcision, little knowledge or fear of venereal disease and promiscuity in almost a hornet’s nest of infection. Thus the venereal rate in Negroes has remained high. Between these two extremes there is the gentile, with a venereal disease rate higher than that of Jews but much lower than that of Negroes."
1949 Eugene H. Hand declared that circumcision prevented venereal disease and cancer of the tongue. Darby wrote of Hand's dubious research, "Newsweek gave generous coverage to these sensational findings, thereby fuelling the popular perception that a policy of mass circumcision was both scientifically valid and of critical importance to the future security of the nation." [Circumcision and venereal disease. Arch Derm and Syphilology.]
1949 Douglas Gairdner reported that the foreskin develops entirely normally and free of all problems in all but 1% of boys by the age of 15 correcting the popular misconception phimosis was normal, a key part of the pathologization of the foreskin.
"It is a curious fact that one of the operations most commonly performed in this country is also accorded the least critical consideration. In order to decide whether a child's foreskin should be ablated the normal anatomy and function of the structure at different ages should be understood; the danger of conserving the foreskin must then be weighed against the hazards of the operation, the mortality and after-effects of which must be known. Though tens of thousands of infants are circumcised each year in this country, nowhere are these essential data assembled. The intention of this paper is to marshal the facts required by those concerned with deciding the fate of the child's foreskin.
Male circumcision, often associated with analogous sexual mutilations of the female such as clitoric circumcision and infibulation, is practised over a wide area of the world by some one-sixth of its population. Over the Near East, patchily throughout tribal Africa, amongst the Moslem peoples of India and of South-East Asia, and amongst the Australasian aborigines circumcision has been regularly practised for as long as we can tell. Many of the natives that Columbus found inhabiting the American continent were circumcised. The earliest Egyptian mummies (2300 B.C.) were circumcised, and wall paintings to be seen in Egypt show that it was customary several thousand years earlier still.
According to Elliot Smith circumcision is one of the characteristic features of a "heliolithic" culture which, some 15,000 years ago, spread out over much of the world; others believe that the practice must have arisen independently among different peoples. In spite of the enormous literature on the subject (well summarized in Hasting's Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics), we remain profoundly ignorant of the origins and significance of this presumably sacrificial rite. The age at which boys are circumcised varies widely in different races, from the Mosaic practice of circumcising at about the eighth day, to the custom in many African tribes of making circumcision part of an initiation ceremony near the age of puberty. Circumcision was introduced into Roman Europe with Christianity; little is known about its status in mediaeval Europe, but it was probably customary only amongst adherents of the Jewish faith until, with the rise of modern surgery in the nineteenth century, its status changed from a religious rite to that of a common surgical procedure.
It is often stated that the prepuce is a vestigial structure devoid of function. However, it seems to be no accident that during the years when the child is incontinent the glans is completely clothed by the prepuce, for, deprived of this protection, the glans becomes susceptible to injury from contact with sodden clothes or napkin. Meatal ulcer is almost confined to circumcised male infants, and is only occasionally seen in the uncircumcised child when the prepuce happens to be unusually lax and the glans consequently exposed (Freud, 1947).
[Cultural genital cutting in the UK appears to be performed primarily for social class distinction.] Amongst the Western nations the circumcision of infants is a common practice only with the English-speaking peoples. It is, for the most part, not the custom in continental Europe or Scandinavia, or in South America. In England the collected data of various colleagues* who have kindly made observations on infants, school-children, and university students reveal wide variations as between different districts and between different social classes. For instance, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne 12% of 500 male infants aged 12 months were circumcised; in Cambridge the comparable figure was 31% of 89 male infants aged 6 to 12 months. Boys coming from the upper classes are more often circumcised, 67% of 81 13-year-old boys entering a public school had been circumcised, whereas only 50% of 154 boys aged 5 to 14 in primary and secondary schools in the rural districts of Cambridgeshire, and 30% of 141 boys aged 5 to 11 in primary schools in the town of Cambridge, had been circumcised. The influence of social class is shown also by some figures analysed by Sir Alan Rook from a group of university students. Whereas 84% of 73 students coming from the best-known public schools had been circumcised, this was so of only 50% of 174 coming from grammar or secondary schools.
About 16 deaths in children under 5 years occur each year from circumcision. In most of the fatalities which have come to my notice death has occurred for no apparent reason under anaesthesia, but haemorrhage and infection have sometimes proved fatal. Haemorrhage is not uncommon after circumcision. F. J. W. Miller and S. D. Court (1949, personal communication), who followed 1,000 infants in Newcastle-upon-Tyne for their first year, found that 58 were circumcised, and two of these bled sufficiently to require blood transfusion. In my own experience about two out of every 100 children circumcised as hospital out-patients will be admitted on account of haemorrhage or other untoward event. Blood losses in the first year are particularly apt to lead to anaemia, and several infants have been seen with severe iron-deficiency anaemia following haemorrhages after circumcision. Reference has already been made to meatal ulcer, which, in so far as it is so much more frequent in circumcised male infants, should be counted a sequel of the operation.
Through ignorance of the anatomy of the prepuce in infancy, mothers and nurses are often instructed to draw the child's foreskin back regularly, on the supposition that stretching of the foreskin is what is required. I have on three occasions seen young boys with a paraphimosis caused by mothers or nurses who have obediently carried out such instructions; for, although the size of the prepuce does allow the glans to be delivered, the fit is often a close one and slight swelling of the glans, such as may result from forceful efforts at retraction, may make its reduction difficult.
[Developmental errors causing foreskin abnormalities may be promoted by wearing soiled diapers too long.] Inflammation of the glans is uncommon in childhood when the prepuce is performing its protective function. Posthitis - inflammation of the prepuce - is commoner, and it occurs in two forms. One form is a cellulitis of the prepuce; this responds well to chemotherapy and does not seem to have any tendency to recur; hence it is questionable whether circumcision is indicated. More often inflammation of the prepuce is part of an ammonia dermatitis affecting the napkin area. The nature of this condition was firmly established by Cooke in 1921, bit is still not universally known. The urea-splitting Bact. ammoniagenes (derived from faecal flora) acts upon the urea in the urine and liberates ammonia. This irritates the skin, which becomes peculiarly thickened, while superficial desquamation produces a silvery sheen on the skin as if it were covered with a film of tissue paper. Such appearances are diagnostic of ammonia dermatitis, and inquiry will confirm that the napkins, particularly those left on through the longer night interval, smell powerfully of ammonia. Treatment consists in impregnating the napkins with a mild antiseptic inhibiting the growth of the urea-splitting organisms. When involved in an ammonia dermatitis the prepuce shows the characteristic thickening of the skin, and this is often labelled a "redundant prepuce" - another misnomer which may serve as a reason for circumcision. The importance of recognizing ammonia dermatitis lies in the danger that if circumcision is performed, the delicate glans, deprived of its proper protection, is particularly apt to share in the inflammation and to develop a meatal ulcer. Once formed, a meatal ulcer is often most difficult to cure.
[Phimosis concerns wildly overstated.] A number of symptoms of obscure cause, such as enuresis, masturbation, habit spasm, night terrors, or even convulsions, have from time to time been attributed to phimosis, and circumcision has been advised. No evidence exists that a prepuce whose only fault is that it has not yet developed retractability can cause such symptoms.
Conclusions It has been shown that, since during the first few year of life the prepuce is still in process of developing, it is impossible at this period to determine in which infants the prepuce will attain normal retractability. In fact, only about 10% will fail to attain this by the age of 3 years. [Estimates of this age have varied.] In a very few this may prove impossible and circumcision might then be considered a justifiable precaution. Higgins (1949), with long experience of paediatric urology, also concludes that circumcision should not be considered until "after the age of, say, 2 to 3 years." [Thorvaldsen and Meyhoff (2005) carried out a survey in Denmark reporting the average age of first retraction without external assistance at 10.4 years.]
The prepuce of the young infant should therefore be left in its natural state. As soon as it becomes retractable, which will generally occur some time between 9 months and 3 years, its toilet [hygiene] should be included in the routine of bath time, and soap and water applied to it in the same fashion as to other structures, such as the ears, which are customarily treated with special assiduousness on account of their propensity to retain dirt. As the boy grows up he should be taught to keep his prepuce clean himself, just as he is taught to wash his ears. If such a procedure became customary the circumcision of children would become an uncommon operation. This would result in the saving of about 16 children's lives lost from circumcision each year in this country, besides saving much parental anxiety and an appreciable amount of the time of doctors and nurses."
[The Fate of the Foreskin: a study of circumcision. British Med J 1949;2:1433-7.]
Darby wrote of the impact of Gairdner (1949):
"In the United States, however, Gairdner’s paper was ignored, and the old myths repackaged by doctors such as Guttmacher held sway instead. Medical textbooks became even more insistent that obstetricians should examine every newborn boy to check whether his foreskin was adherent, unretractible or too long , and to perform an immediate circumcision if such symptoms of “phimosis” were present – as they nearly always were. In 1953 obstetricians Richard L. Miller and Donald C. Snyder published an influential paper in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, calling for the immediate circumcision of all males straight after birth. Ignoring Gairdner and relying heavily on the writings of Wolbarst, they insisted that “phimosis” required immediate surgical correction, and asserted that circumcision would “reduce the incidence of onanism”, heighten male libido and “increase longevity and immunity to nearly all physical and mental illness.” They also stated that circumcision immediately after birth was convenient for the doctor and in the financial best interests of the hospital. Leading obstetrical textbooks were soon rewritten to include Miller and Snyder’s recommendations. [65, 66]"
1949 Joseph Lewis published his intactivist volume. [In the Name of Humanity]

1950: ~72% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 50% of adult men

1950 Hollister Inc. invented the Plastibell circumcision device. Initially it was called scalpel free because prepucial skin was not cut but left to slough Gomco, it
requires a dorsal slit and tearing of the foreskin from the glans before it can be fitted.
The plastibell method requires a dorsal slit on tand tearing of thr foreskin from the glans. Then the foreskin is pulled up over the bell, and a ligature tied to crush it into the groove. Everything distal to the ligature dies and, to stop this from upsetting parents
too much, the foreskin may be cut off first.
[U.S. Pat. No. 2,272,072]
1951 Abraham Ravich theorized that circumcision prevented cervical cancer in women, that 25,000 deaths annually from cancer were caused by the foreskin, and that between 3 and 8 million American men then living had contracted prostate cancer through the influence of their intact foreskins. [Prophylaxis of cancer of the prostate, penis, and cervix by circumcision. NY State J M.]
1953 R. L. Miller and D. C. Snyder suggested routine neonatal circumcision for all males immediately after birth while still in the delivery room to provide "immunity to nearly all physical and mental illness."
"We do feel that there are many excellent reasons for routinely circumcising the male...Circumcision will reduce the incidence of onanism [masturbation]....Longevity, immunity to nearly all physical and mental illness, increased physical vigor, etc., are all attributed to this practice... In addition to the aforementioned reasons for doing the operation, we shall list several reasons to support immediate circumcision. ... Convenience: Under the present regime the obstetrician finishes his episiotomy, walks across the hall and circumcises the infant, and is finished with the whole business. Stimulation of the baby: Frequently following a general anesthetic the newborn is depressed and various stimulants are employed; circumcision unfailingly produces and excellent response in a sleepy baby."
[Immediate circumcision of the newborn male. AJOG. 1953;65:1-11.]
1954 Ernest L. Wydner claimed universal circumcision prevented cervical cancer in women. [A study of environmental factors of carcinoma of the cervix. AJOG.] He showed his own study to be invalid 6 years later, because the cervical cancer patients in his study incorrectly reported that their husbands were uncircumcised without actually having any idea whether their husbands were or not. They were just giving the answer they thought the doctor wanted to hear. Wynder later recognized and admitted the error in Wynder & Licklider (1960) showing most women didn't know the difference and even many men were not aware. This circumcision to reduce cervical cancer hypothesis was also disproved by Stern & Neely (1962).
1954 Brooklyn Rabbi Harry Bronstein invents the Mogen clamp. This becomes one of the main methods used in American circumcisions and especially Jewish ritual circumcisions.
The Mogen Clamp requires the foreskin to be torn off from the glans. After stretching it distally and away from the glans, the clamp is applied pinching the foreskin. After allowing 2 to 5 minutes to fit off blood flow, the foreskin may be amputated.
[U.S. Pat. No. 2,747,576]
Together, the Gomco clamp, Plastibell, and Mogen clamp make up the majority of circumcision methods done in America and the western world.
1956 Raymond Creelman invented the Circumstraint™ which straps down and immobilizes the baby's arms and legs. [USPTO patent number RE24,377]

1958 C. F. McDonald said:
"the same reasons that apply for the circumcision of males are generally valid when considered for the female."
Curiously, this doctor used "circumcision" to refer to the separation of clitoral adhesions with a probe, technically this is non-amputative preputial adhesiolysis and female circumcision had until then been used only to mean (excisive) prepucectomy. Performed on an infant, adhesiolysis would be likely to cause skin bridging as noted by unisex prepucectomy advocate Edwin H. Pratt in 1898 in Circumcision of Girls. [Circumcision of the female. G P.]
1959 W. G. Rathmann wrote that among the "benefits" of female circumcision [prepucectomy], it cured psychosomatic illnesses and would help marital problems and would "make the clitoris easier to find" for the husband. He favored only therapeutic surgery though writing, "Routine circumcision because of a functional problem alone, without the proper anatomic indications, will probably be of no benefit and might be harmful." [Female Circumcision: Indications and a New Technique [NSFW]. G P.]

1960: ~78% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 57% of adult men

1962 Stern & Neely refuted Ravich's hypothesis that foreskin caused cervical cancer in women. [Stern & Neely. Cancer of the cervix in reference to circumcision and marital history. J Am Medical Women’s Association.]
1963 D. Govinda disproved Wolbarst’s theory that smegma was carcinogenic [D. Govinda Reddy. Carcinogenic action of human smegma. Arch Pathology.]
1965 William Morgan’s provocatively titled paper debunked all the arguments then used to justify infant circumcision. [The Rape of the Phallus. JAMA.]

The Sexual Revolution

In the '60s, male cutting was maintained at that key time of widespread intellectual revolt against tradition by decisive and extremely successful rebranding. Now that genital cutting had become the social norm, it needed to be viewed as altruism. This is when the idea the foreskin did not play any role in pleasure was introduced to replace the anti-masturbation hysteria of previous generations of circumcision promotion. Masters & Johnson's utterly false claim that the foreskin played no role in coitus and did not affect the sensitivity of the penis was key in maintaining the genital cutting tradition. Those claims were not based on any evidence or data they ever published or were able to produce when requested for review.
1966 John M. Foley's The Practice of Circumcision: A Revaluation (New York: Materia Medica, 1966) was published.
1966 Masters and Johnson made the false but highly influential claim there were no differences in sensitivity between penises with and without intact foreskin. Their work established the false dogma that circumcision had no effect on sexual function, which then went unquestioned for the next 40 years. [Human Sexual Response. Boston: Little Brown.]
1969 Morris Fishbein called for circumcision to prevent nervousness and masturbation.
"When children are kept busy with wholesome play, work and planning, and when they are loved and understood in matters such as these, a little masturbation may occur but will be speedily forgotten. Be sure the children are healthily tired when they go to bed. Be sure that there is no need of circumcision, or if there is that it is corrected."
[Sex hygiene in Modern Home Medical Adviser. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. p 115.]

1970: ~82% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 63% of adult men

1970 Noel Preston drew attention to how unscientific the claims that foreskin caused cancer were and the other supposed preventative benefits of foreskin destruction. Whither the foreskin? JAMA.]
1970 Meredith Campbell, a renowned urologist, includes in his textbook:
"Parents readily recognize the importance of local cleanliness and genital hygiene in their children and are usually ready to adopt measures which may avert masturbation. Circumcision is usually advised on these grounds."
This is about the last mention in mainstream science of circumcision preventing masturbation for these reasons:
  • Masturbation was no longer feared nor thought to be harmful
  • Harming your children to damage their future sexuality was no longer a socially action
  • It was obvious at this point that circumcised men could still masturbate
[The Male Genital Tract and the Female Urethra. in: Campbell's Urology. vol. 2. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. 1970:1836.]
1970 I. O. W. Leitch published a paper that eventually lead to the de-normalization of the practice in Australia as Gairdner (1949) had done in the UK and New Zealand.
"A review of the literature suggests that many of the traditional indications remain unproven. In the light of this study, and other surveys which indicate the hazards of the operation, it is suggested that circumcision should be confined to those with a genuine medical indication.
Nowadays, in Australia, despite a state of enlightened civilization that average Australians are thought to enjoy, circumcision is still the rule. The exposed glans is the fashion. The undressed penis stands as a social symbol, and the foreskin is still a schoolboy's curiosity, viewed secretly with wonder and awe. Circumcision now performed as a social ritual, and those in favour of the operation have justified its performance on medical grounds.
It has been said that circumcision is a simple operation with little associated morbidity and mortality, and that benefits include increased hygiene, and prophylaxis against malignancy. Opinion against the performance of the operation of circumcision is just as certain that if the foreskin is subjected to adequate toilet [hygiene], carcinoma is not a problem, neither is balinitis.
In the belief that the operation of circumcision is not without risk, it was decided to analyse some of the case records of circumcision performed at this Hospital to obtain statistics concerning the actual morbidity. Should a significant morbidity exist, then it seems obvious that there are no grounds for the present-day practice of social circumcision.
The incidence [of complications] was rather high (Table II), and for convenience they have been analysed in 2 groups, early and late, according to whether they occurred before or after 2 weeks. Late complications occurred in 15 (7.5%). One of the 2 cases of meatal stenosis eventually required a meatotomy; in one healing was delayed for 5 1/2 weeks; and in 2, too little skin was removed at operation.
The total complication rate was 31 in 200 cases, i.e. 15.5%.
In an attempt to evaluate these complications, several aspects were analysed. The first of these was the experience of the operator; surgeons had a complication rate of 14.9%, surgical registrars 17.6% and resident medical officers 50%. Perhaps this would not suffer statistical scrutiny, but it probably reflects the residents' lack of experience.
Haemorrhage was the most common complication, and on clinical grounds was classified as mild, arterial or brisk venous haemorrhage as moderate, while clinical signs of blood loss and/or the need for transfusion were classified as severe. The procedures required to control this haemorrhage were also listed.
Meatal ulcer was the second most common complication, and an attempt was made to correlate it with the type of dressing or any adjunct smeared on the glans after circumcision. It was assumed that management after circumcision was similar in most instances, and in fact the type of dressing used had no significant effect on the incidence of meatal ulcer.
Two deaths from routine circumcision occurred in Australia during the period 1960-1966. Speert (1953) in a survey of the period 1939-1951 quoted one death in a series of 566,463 circumcisions, and 243 deaths from carcinoma of the penis during the same period. In England and Wales, between 1942 and 1947, 16 children died annually as a result of routine circumcison (Begg, 1953), while Gairdner (1949) reported 16 deaths in a series of 90,000 circumcisions, high mortality figures for a simple operation.
Mortality aside, circumcision is accompanied by a considerable number of less serious complications (15.5%) including haemorrhage, meatal ulcer, meatal stenosis and infection in the series reported here. Other complications included laceration of the glans during operation, delayed wound healing, and ineffectual circumcision. A less serious delayed complication of circumcision is ammoniacal dermatitis causing a meatal ulcer and stenosis, a sequel which only occurs in the circumcised. Other less common but more serious complications not seen in this survey are urethral fistula, amputation of the glans, avulsion of the scrotum and septicaemia (Patel, 1966).
Severe haemorrhage, also absent from this series, may require tranfusion with its attendant occasional complications, or further surgical intervention with the possibility of an additional anaesthetic. Meatal stenosis may require a meatotomy, and the rarer severe complications may require elaborate plastic surgical procedures. A second operation because of the failure or complication of the first is not unusual and constituted 9.5% of this series.
A circumcision, then, is an operation which is accompanied by a not inconsiderable risk which should be seriously considered when the operation is entertained.
With proper counseling, circumcision becomes an unnecessary operation, even more so when it is realized that the prepuce plays an important part in protecting the glans during the period of urinary incontinence in the first years of life.
Finally, from a review of the recent literature and the results of this survey it is deduced that routine circumcision is largely unwarranted, and that adequate personal hygiene, possibly aided by making all foreskins retractable at the age of 3 years, has exactly the same effect as circumcision with none of the complications."
[Circumcision: A Continuing Enigma. Aust Paediatr J 1970;6:59-65.]
1971 Abraham Ravich theorized circumcision prevents cancer of the bladder and the rectum. [Viral carcinogenesis in venereally susceptible organs. Cancer.]
1971 The AAP Committee on Fetus and Newborn stated, "There are no valid medical indications for circumcision in the neonatal period." [Committee on Fetus and Newborn Issues. Circumcision. Hospital Care of Newborn Infants 5th Edition. Evanston, Ill: AAP]
1973 R. Dagher, Melvin Selzer, and Jack Lapides declared anyone who disagreed with imposing mass infant circumcision was deluded. [Carcinoma of the penis and the anti-circumcision crusade. J U.]
1973 Abraham Ravich published a book promoting circumcision: [Preventing V.D. and Cancer by Circumcision]
1973 Leo Wollman reported statistics on 100 female circumcisions he performed to cure "hooded clitoris." [Hooded Clitoris: Preliminary Report. J Am Soc of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Med.]
1973 Cathrine Kellison wrote an article promoting female prepucectomy for Playgirl magazine. [Circumcision for Women. Playgirl. Oct.]
1975 Cathrine Kellison penned a second article promoting female prepucectomy for Playgirl magazine. [$100 Surgery for a Million-Dollar Sex Life. Playgirl. May.]
1975 The AAP Task force on Circumcision reported, "There are no medical indications for routine circumcisions and the procedure cannot be considered an essential component of health care." [Report on the ad hoc task force on circumcision. Pediatrics.]
1977 Takey Crist reported on his circumcision of fifteen women, and provided a list of four conditions for when the surgery would be indicated: "a) they could achieve orgasm only by masturbation and/or oral sex, b) they could have orgasm in the lateral or female-superior positions only, c) they stated, "it feels good, I get there, but suddenly it's over," d) they had a positive cotton-tip test, where patients felt a distinct difference when a cotton-tipped applicator was applied directly to the clitoris when the foreskin was retracted as opposed to application to the foreskin". Crist's study concludes, "Patients who have undergone this procedure have generally commented that they have enhanced sexual response." ["Female Circumcision." Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality. Aug.]
1977 Insurance company, Blue Shield Association recommended individual plans stop covering 28 surgical and diagnostic procedures considered outmoded including removing the hood of the clitoris. ["Blue Shield Acts to Curb Payment On Procedures of Doubtful Value", NY Times, 1977]
1978 Sydney S. Gellis wrote,
"It is an uncontestable fact at this point that there are more deaths from complications of circumcision than from cancer of the penis. … Physicians should become more vociferous than they have been in discouraging circumcision of the newborn."
[Circumcision. Am J Dis Child.]

Previous: 1900-1939

submitted by DarthEquus to Intactivism

Looking for a good resource to learn neurological disorders of the bladder

MS4 here;
I've been looking for a good textbook to study neurological disorders of bladder (autonomic bladder, atonic bladder, etc) but most of the textbooks I've gone through doesn't really explain it, like Harrison's or even Adams and Victor.
I tried reading Campbell urology but then there's too much of information in it.
Can anyone help me out?
submitted by HouhoinKyoma to neurology

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